KIEL

KIEL, city in schleswig-holstein , Germany. In the 17th century, Jews went to Kiel for the annual fair (Kieler Umschlag). Permission to settle in the city was given in 1690 to the Sephardi Court Jew Jacob Musaphia, followed in 1728 by Samson Lewin, another Court Jew. Together they laid the foundations for the small Jewish community. In 1766 Kiel had six Jewish families engaged in small businesses and moneylending. Although Schleswig-Holstein was annexed by Denmark in 1733, the legal status of the Jews in the duchy was not ameliorated. The community had a prayer hall and buried their dead at Rendsburg. In 1803 Jewish students were admitted to the University of Kiel. There were then 29 Jews in the city; the numbers grew to 75 in 1845 and 156 in 1855. A cemetery was consecrated in 1852; the community was officially organized in 1867 and two years later a synagogue was erected, to be replaced by a new one in 1910. In 1900 the community numbered 338 persons, 526 in 1910, 600 in 1925, and 522 in 1933. Kiel rabbis included emil cohn (1907–12) and A. Posner (1912–33). On the Nazi rise to power, the community was exposed to severe repression and persecution: Jewish professors were dismissed from the university and the works of 28 Jewish authors – mainly lecturers in Kiel University – were removed from the library of the university. Anti-Jewish boycott meetings were held all over the city. As all Jewish children were removed from the city's public school system, the community opened its own grade school. A total of 586 Jews left the city during the Nazi era. Of those who remained 85 were deportees and 12 committed suicide. On Nov. 10, 1938, the synagogue was burned down and Jewish homes and stores were looted. After the war 11 Jews returned to Kiel; the bombed Jewish cemetery was later restored. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: M. Stern, Die israelitische Bevoelkerung der deutschen Staedte, 2 (1892); W. Victor, Die Emanzipation der Juden in Schleswig-Holstein (1913); A. Posner, in: MGWJ, 72 (1928), 287–91; 76 (1932), 229–39; Fuehrer durch die juedische Gemeindeverwaltung (1932–33), 122; H. Kellenbenz, Sephardim an der unteren Elbe (1958), index; EJ, 9. S.V. (Chasia Turtel)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • Kiel — [ki:l], der; [e]s, e: vom Bug zum Heck verlaufender Teil des Schiffsrumpfes: der Kiel hatte den Grund berührt und Schaden genommen. Zus.: Bootskiel, Schiffskiel. * * * Kiel1 〈m. 1〉 harter Teil der Vogelfeder, früher als Schreibgerät (FederKiel,… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Kiel — Escudo …   Wikipedia Español

  • Kiel —    Kiel is a city of northern Germany located on the eastern exit of the Kaiser‑Wilhelm Kanal; it was a principal naval base of the German Empire. Formerly part of the duchy of Holstein, Kiel became part of Prussia as a result of the Seven Weeks’ …   Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914

  • Kiel — es la capital del estado Schleswig Holstein, cerca de Dinamarca. * * * Kiel, Tratado de Kiel, canal de ► C. del NE de Alemania, cap. del estado de Schleswig Holstein, en el golfo báltico homónimo; 241 200 h. Puerto naval militar. * * * Ciudad… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • KIEL — Capitale du Land de Schleswig Holstein, située sur la mer Baltique au débouché du canal de Kiel qui fait communiquer cette mer avec la mer du Nord, Kiel n’a pas retrouvé, avec 247 107 habitants (estimation de 1992), sa population d’avant guerre.… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Kiel [2] — Kiel (hierzu der Stadtplan, mit Registerblatt, und Karte »Kieler Hafen«), Stadt und Stadtkreis in der preuß. Provinz Schleswig Holstein, im Hintergrunde des Kieler Busens (s. d.), 16 m ü. M., besteht aus der Altstadt, auf einer Halbinsel zwischen …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Kiel [2] — Kiel 1) Amt im Herzogthum Holstein, /8 QM., 4000 Ew.; 2) Stadt daselbst am Kieler Hafen (s.d.), Sitz des Oberappellationsgerichts für Holstein u. Lauenburg (zugleich juristische Examinationsbehörde), des Sanitätscollegiums für Holstein (zugleich… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Kiel — Kiel, WI U.S. city in Wisconsin Population (2000): 3450 Housing Units (2000): 1498 Land area (2000): 2.406064 sq. miles (6.231678 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.050000 sq. miles (0.129499 sq. km) Total area (2000): 2.456064 sq. miles (6.361177 sq.… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Kiel, WI — U.S. city in Wisconsin Population (2000): 3450 Housing Units (2000): 1498 Land area (2000): 2.406064 sq. miles (6.231678 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.050000 sq. miles (0.129499 sq. km) Total area (2000): 2.456064 sq. miles (6.361177 sq. km) FIPS… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • kieł — {{/stl 13}}{{stl 8}}rz. mnż I, D. kła, Mc. kle {{/stl 8}}{{stl 20}} {{/stl 20}}{{stl 12}}1. {{/stl 12}}{{stl 7}} u ssaków: wyróżniający się stożkowatym kształtem ząb, zwykle dłuższy, znajdujący się między zębami trzonowymi a siekaczami : {{/stl… …   Langenscheidt Polski wyjaśnień

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